Just as both the Tabernacle/Temple and Mount Sinai are patterns of the divine plan of progressing the earth and man towards exaltation in the Celestial Kingdom, so also is the Exodus lead by Moses (a type of the Only Begotten) designed to teach the same principle of progression. Egypt, with all of its false gods, can be seen as a representation of the mortal Telestial World in which we live. Pharaoh's opposition to Moses may be seen as Satan and his opposition to Christ's plan of redemption. The ten plagues which cleanses Egypt of her false gods can be seen as the Savior's cleansing of the earth of all wickedness at His second coming. The last plague which was the death of the firstborn to effect the release of the children of Israel from bondage can be seen as pointing to Christ, the firstborn, who dies and sheds his blood to save us all from the bondage of sin.
The children of Israel were spared from this plague because they had sacrificed a lamb and put the blood of the lamb on their doorpost, thus being saved by the blood of the lamb. This was all done at the Telestial level. Israel is now ready to move ahead and exit the Telestial World. They follow Moses and the Cloud to the Red Sea. At this point Pharaoh has changed his mind and is now coming to take them back captive again. The Red Sea parts for the Israelites who are a type of the firstborn of God:
22 And thou shalt say unto Pharaoh, Thus saith the LORD, Israel [is] my son, [even] my firstborn:
23 And I say unto thee, Let my son go, that he may serve me: and if thou refuse to let him go, behold, I will slay thy son, [even] thy firstborn.
Here it is clear that even though there are thousands of Israelites, the Lord is dealing with them as if they are all one person, his Firstborn Son. The Exodus pattern is designed to conform Israel to the image of the Son.
As Israel goes through the Red Sea with the light shinning over them, Paul the apostle interprets this as a type of their baptism water and the Spirit:
1 Cor 10:1-4
1 MOREOVER, brethren, I would not that ye should be ignorant, how that all our fathers were under the cloud, and all passed through the sea;
2 And were all baptized unto Moses in the cloud and in the sea;
3 And did all eat the same spiritual meat;
4 And did all drink the same spiritual drink: for they drank of that spiritual Rock that followed them: and that Rock was Christ.
Pharaoh and his army followed Israel into the Red Sea on the highway that was cast up in the deep, and were drowned as the water covered them up, just as the waters of baptism wash away those things which have held us bound. Israel is now ready to be led into the Terrestrial World.
They proceed to Mount Sinai to meet with Christ as a type of the second coming. In the Doctrine and Covenants the Lord refers to the trump that announces his coming along with the shaking and quaking of the earth as like what happened at Mount Sinai :
13 For a trump shall sound both long and loud, even as upon Mount Sinai, and all the earth shall quake, and they shall come forth--yea, even the dead which died in me, to receive a crown of righteousness, and to be clothed upon, even as I am, to be with me, that we may be one.
When they leave Mount Sinai they now have no laws but the Lord's laws as the Savior described for his second coming,
22 Wherefore, hear my voice and follow me, and you shall be a free people, and ye shall have no laws but my laws when I come, for I am your lawgiver, and what can stay my hand?
Israel will now build the Tabernacle to be the center of their attention for the next forty years. Judah will always camp on the east of the Tabernacle and Ephraim and Manasseh will always camp on the west. This may be seen as pointing to the Millennium when Judah builds a capital and temple in the east (Jerusalem) and Ephraim/Manasseh build a capital and temple in the west (Jackson County, Missouri).
There were other items that pointed to the Millennium in the Exodus such as, their clothes and shoes never wore out, thus they were clothed without labor as in Eden. They ate manna, thus feasting on the bread of life as the righteous will feast on the words of Christ in the Millennium and enjoy His presence (D&C 101:32-35). All of the rebellious died off during the forty year journey, thus they became a new creature in Christ having conformed to the image of the Son by focusing on the Tabernacle and the Laws of God. Just as the Millennium is designed for us to lose all of our Telestial nature and become worthy to dwell in the presence of God.
Israel is now ready for the final step. They will follow Joshua (his name means Jesus) through the Jordan River as it parts for them (like a veil) and they move into the promised land (Celestial Kingdom).
There are many more types in this Exodus, however, this is sufficient to point out that each of us is on an Exodus and our baptism is our first step to leaving the Telestial World and puts us on a path to dwell in the presence of God in the Celestial Kingdom.